On the right side of the post creation screen you'll see more options (advanced mode may need to be on):
If your Advanced mode button is on, you'll see the Post type drop down. You can use this to change post types if you've changed your mind and want to create something of a different type.
Below that are your site's navigation terms. Check the box(es) for the landing pages you'd like your post to appear on. Note that arrows indicate that there are more terms below the term, and dots indicate that something is tagged there.
Related People and Profiles
This is an autocomplete field, which means you can start typing a name and the posts matching your entry will show up in a list for you to choose from.
In terms of display, related profiles typically appear to the right of your post when it's in full post view, and they may even be linked below the title of the post when viewed as a teaser.
Here's an example, where Mac has been related to a blog post he wrote. The blog post is on the left, and a teaser of his profile appears on the right:
Handy tip: Related profiles create a two-way relationship.
Once you've related a profile to your post, the post is also related to the profile. That means that we can (optionally) display all the posts related to a profile right below it - even in tabs, like this:
This is the field to use if you want your post to go somewhere special when clicked, instead of just opening up in full post view. This is often used for pods, where you want to "tease" to another section of the site, or another website altogether. In the example below, the "Contact us" pod has a redirect to the Contact Us landing page.